1. Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4(g), can be synthesized according to the reaction represented above. A chemist runs the reaction at a constant temperature of 120°C in a rigid 25.0 L container.
(a) Chlorine gas, Cl2(g), is initially present in the container at a pressure of 0.40 atm.
(i) How many moles of Cl2(g) are in the container?
(ii) How many grams of carbon disulfide, CS2(g), are needed to react completely with the Cl2(g) ?
(b) At 30°C the reaction is thermodynamically favorable, but no reaction is observed to occur. However, at 120°C, the reaction occurs at an observable rate.
(i) Explain how the higher temperature affects the collisions between the reactant molecules so that the reaction occurs at an observable rate at 120°C.
(ii) The graph below shows a distribution for the collision energies of reactant molecules at 120°C. Draw a second curve on the graph that shows the distribution for the collision energies of reactant molecules at 30°C.
(c) S2Cl2 is a product of the reaction.
(i) In the box below, complete the Lewis electron-dot diagram for the S2Cl2 molecule by drawing in all of the electron pairs.
(ii) What is the approximate value of the Cl−S−S bond angle in the S2Cl2 molecule that you drew in part (c)(i) ? (If the two Cl−S−S bond angles are not equal, include both angles.)
(d) CCl4(g) can also be produced by reacting CHCl3(g) with Cl2(g) at 400°C, as represented by the equation below.
CHCl3(g) + Cl2(g) → CCl4(g) + HCl(g)
At the completion of the reaction a chemist successfully separates the CCl4(g) from the HCl(g) by cooling the mixture to 70°C, at which temperature the CCl4(g) condenses while the HCl(g) remains in the gaseous state.
(i) Identify all types of intermolecular forces present in HCl(l).
(ii) What can be inferred about the relative strengths of the intermolecular forces in CCl4(l) and HCl(l) ? Justify your answer in terms of the information above.